Dual MPO/PR3 ANCA positivity and vasculitis: insights from a 7-cases study and an AI-powered literature review - Université de Bretagne Occidentale Access content directly
Journal Articles Rheumatology Year : 2024

Dual MPO/PR3 ANCA positivity and vasculitis: insights from a 7-cases study and an AI-powered literature review

Abstract

Abstract Objectives Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are rare conditions characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration in small blood vessels, leading to tissue necrosis. While most patients with AAV present antibodies against either myeloperoxidase (MPO) or proteinase 3 (PR3), rare cases of dual positivity for both antibodies (DP-ANCA) have been reported, and their impact on the clinical picture remains unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical implications, phenotypic profiles and outcomes of patients with DP-ANCA. Methods A retrospective screening for DP-ANCA cases was conducted at Brest University Hospital's immunology laboratory (France), analysing ANCA results from March 2013 to March 2022. Clinical, biological, imaging, and histological data were collected for each DP-ANCA case. Additionally, a comprehensive literature review on DP-ANCA was performed, combining an artificial intelligence (AI)-based search using BIBOT software with a manual PUBMED database search. Results The report of our cases over the last 9 years and those from the literature yielded 103 described cases of patients with DP-ANCA. We identified four distinct phenotypic profiles: (i) idiopathic AAV (∼30%); (ii) drug-induced AAV (∼25%); (iii) autoimmune disease associated with a low risk of developing vasculitis (∼20%); and (iv) immune-disrupting comorbidities (infections, cancers, etc) not associated with AAV (∼25%). Conclusion This analysis of over a hundred DP-ANCA cases suggests substantial diversity in clinical and immunopathological presentations. Approximatively 50% of DP-ANCA patients develop AAV, either as drug-induced or idiopathic forms, while the remaining 50%, characterized by pre-existing dysimmune conditions, demonstrates a remarkably low vasculitis risk. These findings underscore the complex nature of DP-ANCA, its variable impact on patient health, and the necessity for personalized diagnostic and management approaches in these cases.
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Dates and versions

hal-04586294 , version 1 (24-05-2024)

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Eléonore Bettacchioli, Jean-Baptiste Foulquier, Baptiste Chevet, Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, Catherine Hanrotel, et al.. Dual MPO/PR3 ANCA positivity and vasculitis: insights from a 7-cases study and an AI-powered literature review. Rheumatology, 2024, ⟨10.1093/rheumatology/keae170⟩. ⟨hal-04586294⟩
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