T. Tyrrell, The relative influences of nitrogen and phosphorus on oceanic primary production, Nature, vol.400, pp.525-556, 1999.

J. K. Moore, R. J. Geider, C. Guieu, S. L. Jaccard, T. D. Jickells et al., Processes and patterns of nutrient limitation, Nat Geosci, vol.6, pp.701-711, 2013.

S. W. Chisholm, Primary productivity and biogeochemical cycles in the sea, pp.213-250, 1992.

C. De-vargas, S. Audic, N. Henry, J. Decelle, F. Mahe et al., Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean, Science, vol.348, p.1261605, 2015.

A. R. Kirkham, C. Lepère, L. E. Jardillier, F. Not, H. Bouman et al., A global perspective on marine photosynthetic picoeukaryote community structure, ISME J, vol.7, pp.922-958, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00848701

J. A. Sohm, N. A. Ahlgren, Z. J. Thomson, C. Williams, J. W. Moffett et al., Co-occurring Synechococcus ecotypes occupy four major oceanic regimes defined by temperature, macronutrients and iron, ISME J, vol.10, pp.333-378, 2016.

S. J. Biller, P. M. Berube, D. Lindell, and S. W. Chisholm, Prochlorococcus: the structure and function of collective diversity, Nat Rev Microbiol, vol.13, pp.13-27, 2014.

P. Flombaum, J. L. Gallegos, R. A. Gordillo, J. Rincon, L. L. Zabala et al., Present and future global distributions of the marine Cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.110, pp.9824-9833, 2013.

Y. M. Rii, S. Duhamel, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. J. Repeta et al., Diversity and productivity of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes in biogeochemically distinct regions of the South East Pacific Ocean, Limnol Oceanogr, vol.61, pp.806-830, 2016.

Y. M. Rii, D. M. Karl, and M. J. Church, Temporal and vertical variability in picophytoplankton primary productivity in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, vol.562, pp.1-18, 2016.

M. Hartmann, P. Gomez-pereira, C. Grob, M. Ostrowski, D. J. Scanlan et al., Efficient CO 2 fixation by surface Prochlorococcusin the Atlantic Ocean, ISME J, vol.8, pp.2280-2289, 2014.

E. T. Buitenhuis, W. Li, D. Vaulot, M. W. Lomas, M. R. Landry et al., Picophytoplankton biomass distribution in the global ocean, Earth Syst. Sci Data, vol.4, pp.37-46, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00939662

L. Jardillier, M. V. Zubkov, J. Pearman, and D. J. Scanlan, Significant CO 2 fixation by small prymnesiophytes in the subtropical and tropical northeast Atlantic Ocean, ISME J, vol.4, pp.1180-92, 2010.

K. Mackey, A. Paytan, K. Caldeira, A. R. Grossman, D. Moran et al., Effect of temperature on photosynthesis and growth in marine Synechococcus spp, Plant Physiol, vol.163, pp.815-844, 2013.

Z. I. Johnson, E. R. Zinser, A. Coe, N. P. Mcnulty, E. Woodward et al., Niche partitioning among Prochlorococcus ecotypes along ocean-scale environmental gradients, Science, vol.311, pp.1737-1777, 2006.

E. R. Zinser, Z. I. Johnson, A. Coe, E. Karaca, D. Veneziano et al., Influence of light and temperature on Prochlorococcus ecotype distributions in the Atlantic Ocean, Limnol Oceanogr, vol.52, pp.2205-2225, 2007.

L. R. Moore, R. Goericke, and S. W. Chisholm, Comparative physiology of Synechococcusand Prochlorococcus: Influence of light and temperature on growth, pigments, fluorescence and absorptive properties, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, vol.116, pp.259-76, 1995.

B. Chen, H. Liu, B. Huang, and J. Wang, Temperature effects on the growth rate of marine picoplankton, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, vol.505, pp.37-47, 2014.

A. C. Martiny, C. Pham, F. W. Primeau, J. A. Vrugt, J. K. Moore et al., Strong latitudinal patterns in the elemental ratios of marine plankton and organic matter, Nat Geosci, vol.6, pp.279-83, 2013.

T. S. Weber and C. Deutsch, Ocean nutrient ratios governed by plankton biogeography, Nature, vol.467, pp.550-554, 2010.

D. M. Karl, R. R. Bidigare, M. J. Church, J. E. Dore, R. M. Letelier et al., The nitrogen cycle in the North Pacific trades biome: an evolving paradigm. In: Nitrogen in the marine environment, pp.705-69, 2008.

S. E. Fawcett, M. W. Lomas, J. R. Casey, B. B. Ward, and D. M. Sigman, Assimilation of upwelled nitrate by small eukaryotes in the Sargasso Sea, Nat Geosci, vol.4, pp.717-739, 2011.

A. C. Martiny, S. Kathuria, and P. M. Berube, Widespread metabolic potential for nitrite and nitrate assimilation among Prochlorococcus ecotypes, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.106, pp.10787-92, 2009.

P. M. Berube, S. J. Biller, A. G. Kent, J. W. Berta-thompson, S. E. Roggensack et al., Physiology and evolution of nitrate acquisition in Prochlorococcus, ISME J, vol.9, pp.1195-207, 2014.

J. R. Casey, M. W. Lomas, J. Mandecki, and D. E. Walker, Prochlorococcus contributes to new production in the Sargasso Sea deep chlorophyll maximum, Geophys Res Lett, vol.34, p.10604, 2007.

G. C. Kettler, A. C. Martiny, K. Huang, J. Zucker, M. L. Coleman et al., Patterns and implications of gene gain and loss in the evolution of Prochlorococcus, PLoS Genet, vol.3, pp.2515-2543, 2007.

S. J. Biller, P. M. Berube, J. W. Berta-thompson, L. Kelly, S. E. Roggensack et al., Genomes of diverse isolates of the marine cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus. Sci Data, vol.1, p.140034, 2014.

N. Kashtan, S. E. Roggensack, S. Rodrigue, J. W. Thompson, S. J. Biller et al., Single-cell genomics reveals hundreds of coexisting subpopulations in wild Prochlorococcus, Science, vol.344, pp.416-436, 2014.

M. W. Lomas, D. A. Bronk, and G. Van-den-engh, Use of flow cytometry to measure biogeochemical rates and processes in the ocean, Ann Rev Mar Sci, vol.3, pp.537-66, 2011.

N. Musat, R. Foster, T. Vagner, B. Adam, and M. M. Kuypers, Detecting metabolic activities in single cells, with emphasis on nanoSIMS, FEMS Microbiol Rev, vol.36, pp.486-511, 2012.

D. Gao, X. Huang, and Y. Tao, A critical review of NanoSIMS in analysis of microbial metabolic activities at single-cell level, Crit Rev Biotechnol, vol.36, pp.884-90, 2016.

A. López-lozano, J. Diez, S. El-alaoui, C. Moreno-vivián, and J. M. García-fernández, Nitrate is reduced by heterotrophic bacteria but not transferred to Prochlorococcus in non-axenic cultures, FEMS Microbiol Ecol, vol.41, pp.151-60, 2002.

S. Duhamel, F. Van-wambeke, D. Lefevre, M. Benavides, and S. Bonnet, Mixotrophic metabolism by natural communities of unicellular cyanobacteria in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean, Environ Microbiol, vol.20, pp.2743-56, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01830630

A. Z. Worden, J. K. Nolan, and B. Palenik, Assessing the dynamics and ecology of marine picophytoplankton: The importance of the eukaryotic component, Limnol Oceanogr, vol.49, pp.168-79, 2004.

S. E. Baer, M. W. Lomas, K. X. Terpis, C. Mouginot, and A. C. Martiny, Stoichiometry of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and small eukaryotic populations in the western North Atlantic Ocean, Environ Microbiol, vol.19, pp.1568-83, 2017.

T. Moutin, P. Raimbault, and J. Poggiale, Primary production in surface waters of the western mediterranean sea. Calculation of daily production, Comptes Rendus l'Académie Des Sciences, vol.322, pp.651-660, 1999.

W. G. Harrison, L. R. Harris, and B. D. Irwin, The kinetics of nitrogen utilization in the oceanic mixed layer: Nitrate and ammonium interactions at nanomolar concentrations, Limnol Oceanogr, vol.41, pp.16-32, 1996.

A. P. Rees, I. Joint, and K. M. Donald, Early spring bloom phytoplanktonnutrient dynamics at the Celtic Sea shelf edge, Deep Res Part I Oceanogr Res Pap, vol.46, pp.483-510, 1999.

F. Ribalet, J. Swalwell, S. Clayton, V. Jiménez, S. Sudek et al., Light-driven synchrony of Prochlorococcus growth and mortality in the subtropical Pacific gyre, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.112, pp.8008-112, 2015.

S. L'helguen, G. Slawyk, L. Corre, and P. , Seasonal patterns of urea regeneration by size-fractionated microheterotrophs in well-mixed temperate coastal waters, J Plankton Res, vol.27, pp.263-70, 2005.

D. R. Clark, A. P. Rees, and I. Joint, Ammonium regeneration and nitrification rates in the oligotrophic Atlantic Ocean: implications for new production estimates, Limnol Oceanogr, vol.53, pp.52-62, 2008.

N. M. Price and P. J. Harrison, Urea uptake by Sargasso Sea phytoplankton: saturated and in situ uptake rates, Deep Sea Res Part A Oceanogr Res Pap, vol.35, pp.1579-93, 1988.

R. C. Dugdale and J. J. Goering, Uptake of new and regenerated forms of nitrogen in primary productivity, Limnol Oceanogr, vol.12, pp.196-206, 1967.

P. Raimbault and N. Garcia, Evidence for efficient regenerated production and dinitrogen fixation in nitrogen-deficient waters of the South Pacific Ocean: impact on new and export production, Biogeosciences, pp.323-361, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00362737

C. Solomon, J. Collier, G. Berg, and P. Glibert, Role of urea in microbial metabolism in aquatic systems: a biochemical and molecular review, Aquat Microb Ecol, vol.59, pp.67-88, 2010.

S. E. Fawcett, M. W. Lomas, B. B. Ward, and D. M. Sigman, Global Biogeochemical Cycles production in the Sargasso Sea, Glob Biogeochem Cycles, vol.28, pp.86-102, 2014.

P. M. Berube, A. Coe, S. E. Roggensack, and S. W. Chisholm, Temporal dynamics of Prochlorococcus cells with the potential for nitrate assimilation in the subtropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans, Limnol Oceanogr, vol.61, pp.482-95, 2016.

R. Massana, Eukaryotic Picoplankton in Surface Oceans, Annu Rev Microbiol, vol.65, pp.91-110, 2011.

D. Vaulot, W. Eikrem, M. Viprey, and H. Moreau, The diversity of small eukaryotic phytoplankton (?3 ?m) in marine ecosystems, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol.32, pp.795-820, 2008.

N. A. Ahlgren and G. Rocap, Diversity and distribution of marine Synechococcus: Multiple gene phylogenies for consensus classification and development of qPCR assays for sensitive measurement of clades in the ocean, Front Microbiol, vol.3, p.213, 2012.

A. A. Larkin, S. K. Blinebry, C. Howes, Y. Lin, S. E. Loftus et al., Niche partitioning and biogeography of high light adapted Prochlorococcus across taxonomic ranks in the North Pacific, ISME J, vol.10, pp.1555-67, 2016.

P. M. Glibert, F. P. Wilkerson, R. C. Dugdale, J. A. Raven, C. L. Dupont et al., Pluses and minuses of ammonium and nitrate uptake and assimilation by phytoplankton and implications for productivity and community composition, with emphasis on nitrogen-enriched conditions, Limnol Oceanogr, vol.61, pp.165-97, 2016.

A. G. Kent, C. L. Dupont, S. Yooseph, and A. C. Martiny, Global biogeography of Prochlorococcus genome diversity in the surface ocean, ISME J, vol.10, pp.1856-65, 2016.

Y. Ohashi, W. Shi, N. Takatani, M. Aichi, S. I. Maeda et al., Regulation of nitrate assimilation in cyanobacteria, J Exp Bot, vol.62, pp.1411-1435, 2011.

L. K. Kang, G. C. Gong, Y. H. Wu, and J. Chang, The expression of nitrate transporter genes reveals different nitrogen statuses of dominant diatom groups in the southern East China Sea, Mol Ecol, vol.24, pp.1374-86, 2015.

B. Song and B. B. Ward, Molecular cloning and characterization of high-affinity nitrate transporters in marine phytoplankton, J Phycol, vol.43, pp.542-52, 2007.

J. A. Raven, B. Wollenweber, and L. L. Handley, A comparison of ammonium and nitrate as nitrogen sources for photolithotrophs, New Phytol, vol.121, pp.19-32, 1992.

A. Quesada, J. Hidalgo, and E. Fernández, Three Nrt2 genes are differentially regulated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Mol Gen Genet, vol.258, pp.373-380, 1998.

S. L'helguen, J. F. Maguer, and J. Caradec, Inhibition kinetics of nitrate uptake by ammonium in size-fractionated oceanic phytoplankton communities: Implications for new production and f-ratio estimates, J Plankton Res, vol.30, pp.1179-88, 2008.

S. Sunagawa, L. P. Coelho, S. Chaffron, J. R. Kultima, K. Labadie et al., Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome, Science, vol.348, p.1261359, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01233742

J. A. Fuhrman, Microbial community structure and its functional implications, Nature, vol.459, pp.193-202, 2009.

M. Ackermann, A functional perspective on phenotypic heterogeneity in microorganisms, Nat Rev Microbiol, vol.13, pp.497-508, 2015.

F. Schreiber, S. Littmann, G. Lavik, S. Escrig, A. Meibom et al., Phenotypic heterogeneity driven by nutrient limitation promotes growth in fluctuating environments, Nat Microbiol, vol.1, p.16055, 2016.

Z. Bódi, Z. Farkas, D. Nevozhay, D. Kalapis, V. Lázár et al., Phenotypic heterogeneity promotes adaptive evolution, PLOS Biol, vol.1, p.2000644, 2017.

L. A. Magdanova and N. V. Golyasnaya, Heterogeneity as an adaptive trait of microbial populations, Microbiology, vol.82, pp.1-10, 2013.

M. Hashimoto, T. Nozoe, H. Nakaoka, R. Okura, S. Akiyoshi et al., Noise-driven growth rate gain in clonal cellular populations, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.113, pp.3251-3257, 2016.

W. Mohr, T. Vagner, M. Kuypers, M. Ackermann, and J. Laroche, Resolution of Conflicting signals at the single-cell level in the regulation of cyanobacterial photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, PLOS ONE, vol.8, p.66060, 2013.

S. H. Kopf, S. E. Mcglynn, A. Green-saxena, Y. Guan, D. K. Newman et al., Heavy water and 15 N labeling with NanoSIMS analysis reveals growth-rate dependent metabolic heterogeneity in chemostats, Environ Microbiol, vol.17, pp.2542-56, 2015.

J. A. Finzi-hart, J. Pett-ridge, P. K. Weber, R. Popa, S. J. Fallon et al., Fixation and fate of C and N in the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry, PNAS, vol.106, pp.6345-50, 2009.

H. Ploug, N. Musat, B. Adam, C. L. Moraru, G. Lavik et al., Carbon and nitrogen fluxes associated with the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon sp. in the Baltic Sea, ISME J, vol.4, pp.1215-1238, 2010.

R. A. Foster, S. Sztejrenszus, and M. M. Kuypers, Measuring carbon and N 2 fixation in field populations of colonial and free-living unicellular cyanobacteria using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Raven J, editor, J Phycol, vol.49, pp.502-518, 2013.

E. Flores and A. Herrero, Nitrogen assimilation and nitrogen control in cyanobacteria, Biochem Soc Trans, vol.33, pp.164-171, 2005.

S. W. Chisholm and . Prochlorococcus, Curr Biol, vol.27, pp.447-455, 2017.

B. Bec, J. Husseini-ratrema, Y. Collos, P. Souchu, and A. Vaquer, Phytoplankton seasonal dynamics in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon: Emphasis on the picoeukaryote community, J Plankton Res, vol.27, pp.881-94, 2005.

I. N. Shilova, M. M. Mills, J. C. Robidart, K. A. Turk-kubo, K. M. Björkman et al., Differential effects of nitrate, ammonium, and urea as N sources for microbial communities in the North Pacific Ocean, Limnology and Oceanography, vol.62, pp.2550-74, 2017.

B. Van-mooy and A. H. Devol, Assessing nutrient limitation of Prochlorococcus in the North Pacific subtropical gyre by using an RNA capture method, Limnol Oceanogr, vol.53, pp.78-88, 2008.

C. Mahaffey, K. M. Björkman, and D. M. Karl, Phytoplankton response to deep seawater nutrient addition in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, vol.460, pp.13-34, 2012.

Y. M. Rii, R. R. Bidigare, and M. J. Church, Differential responses of eukaryotic phytoplankton to nitrogenous nutrients in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, Front Mar Sci, vol.5, p.92, 2018.

P. M. Berube, S. J. Biller, A. G. Kent, J. W. Berta-thompson, S. E. Roggensack et al., Physiology and evolution of nitrate acquisition in Prochlorococcus, ISME J, vol.9, pp.1195-207, 2015.