Histopathological factors help to predict lymph node metastases more efficiently than extra-nodal recurrences in submucosa invading pT1 colorectal cancer

Abstract : The therapeutic management of patients with endoscopic resection of colorectal cancer invading the submucosa (i.e. pT1 CRC) depends on the balance between the risk of cancer relapse and the risk of surgery-related morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to report on the histopathological risk factors predicting lymph node metastases and recurrences in an exhaustive case series comprising every pT1 CRC (of adenocarcinoma subtype only) diagnosed in Finistère (France) during 5-years. For 312 patients with at least 46 months follow-up included in the digestive cancers registry database, histopathological factors required for risk stratification in pT1 CRC were reviewed. Patients were treated by endoscopic resection only (51 cases), surgery only (138 cases), endoscopic resection followed by surgery (102 cases) or transanal resection (21 cases). Lymph node metastases were diagnosed in 19 patients whereas 15 patients had an extra-nodal recurrence (7 local recurrences only, 4 distant metastases only and 4 combining local and distant recurrences). Four patients with distant metastases died of their cancer. Poor tumor differentiation, vascular invasion and high grade tumor budding on HES slides were notably identified as strong risk-factors of lymph node metastases but the prediction of extra-nodal recurrences (local, distant and sometimes fatal) was less obvious, albeit it was more frequent in patients treated by transanal resection than with other treatment strategies. Beyond good performances in predicting lymph node metastases and guiding therapeutic decision in patients with pT1 CRC, our study points that extra-nodal recurrence of cancer is more difficult to predict and requires further investigations.
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Fanny Barel, Mélanie Cariou, Philippe Saliou, Tiphaine Kermarrec, Anaïs Auffret, et al.. Histopathological factors help to predict lymph node metastases more efficiently than extra-nodal recurrences in submucosa invading pT1 colorectal cancer. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2019, 9, pp.8342. ⟨10.1038/s41598-019-44894-w⟩. ⟨hal-02262290⟩

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