J. M. Cock, The Ectocarpus genome and the independent evolution of multicellularity in brown algae, Nature, vol.465, pp.617-621, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-00906990

J. M. Cock and J. Collén, Nedelcu) Ch. Independent Emergence of Complex Multicellularity in the Brown and Red Algae, Evolutionary Transitions to Multicellular Life, vol.2, pp.335-361, 2015.

P. K. Dayton, Ecology of kelp communities. Annual review of ecology and systematics, pp.215-245, 1985.

R. S. Steneck, Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future, Environmental conservation, vol.29, pp.436-459, 2002.

N. Wei, J. Quarterman, and Y. Jin, Marine macroalgae: an untapped resource for producing fuels and chemicals, Trends in biotechnology, vol.31, pp.70-77, 2013.

A. J. Smit, Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of seaweed natural products: a review, Journal of applied phycology, vol.16, pp.245-262, 2004.

G. Michel, T. Tonon, D. Scornet, J. M. Cock, and B. Kloareg, Central and storage carbon metabolism of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus: insights into the origin and evolution of storage carbohydrates in Eukaryotes, New Phytologist, vol.188, pp.67-81, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01806417

I. R. Davison and G. A. Pearson, Stress tolerance in intertidal seaweeds, Journal of Phycology, vol.32, pp.197-211, 1996.

R. H. Bustamante, Gradients of intertidal primary productivity around the coast of South Africa and their relationships with consumer biomass, Oecologia, vol.102, pp.189-201, 1995.

B. A. Menge, Top-down and bottom-up community regulation in marine rocky intertidal habitats, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol.250, pp.257-289, 2000.

C. F. Mota, A. H. Engelen, E. A. Serrao, and G. A. Pearson, Some don't like it hot: microhabitat-dependent thermal and water stresses in a trailing edge population, Functional Ecology, vol.29, pp.640-649, 2015.

E. Sanford and M. W. Kelly, Local adaptation in marine invertebrates, Annual Review of Marine Science, vol.3, pp.509-535, 2011.

T. J. Kawecki and D. Ebert, Conceptual issues in local adaptation, Ecology Letters, vol.7, pp.1225-1241, 2004.

, Scientific RepoRtS |, vol.7, p.43241

D. K. Padilla and M. M. Savedo, A systematic review of phenotypic plasticity in marine invertebrate and plant systems, Advances in marine biology, vol.65, pp.67-94, 2013.

K. Apel and H. Hirt, Reactive oxygen species: Metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction, Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol.55, pp.373-399, 2004.

W. X. Wang, B. Vinocur, and A. Altman, Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance, Planta, vol.218, pp.1-14, 2003.

A. Wahid, S. Gelani, M. Ashraf, and M. R. Foolad, Heat tolerance in plants: An overview, Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.61, pp.199-223, 2007.

S. M. Dittami, Integrative analysis of metabolite and transcript abundance during the short-term response to saline and oxidative stress in the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus, Plant, cell & environment, vol.34, pp.629-642, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00597335

S. M. Dittami, Global expression analysis of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) reveals large-scale reprogramming of the transcriptome in response to abiotic stress, Genome Biology, vol.10, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01806423

S. Heesch, A sequence-tagged genetic map for the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus provides large-scale assembly of the genome sequence, New Phytologist, vol.188, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01806415

S. Ahmed, A haploid system of sex determination in the brown alga Ectocarpus sp, Current Biology, vol.24, pp.1945-1957, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01132642

A. E. Montecinos, Species delimitation and phylogeographic analyses in the Ectocarpus subgroup siliculosi (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae), Journal of Phycology, 2016.

A. F. Peters, L. Couceiro, K. Tsiamis, F. C. Küpper, and M. Valero, Barcoding of cryptic stages of marine brown algae isolated from incubated substratum reveals high diversity in Acinetosporaceae (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae), Cryptogamie, Algologie, vol.36, pp.3-29, 2015.

A. F. Peters, D. Scornet, D. G. Muller, B. Kloareg, and J. M. Cock, Inheritance of organelles in artificial hybrids of the isogamous multicellular chromist alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae), European Journal of Phycology, vol.39, pp.235-242, 2004.

L. Couceiro, Evolution and maintenance of haploid-diploid life cycles in natural populations: The case of the marine brown alga Ectocarpus, Evolution, vol.69, pp.1808-1822, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01167462

H. C. Bold and M. Wyynne, Introduction to the algae: structure and reproduction, 1978.

L. A. Mccauley and J. D. Wehr, Taxonomic reappraisal of the freshwater brown algae Bodanella, Ectocarpus, Heribaudiella, and Pleurocladia (Phaeophyceae) on the basis of rbc L sequences and morphological characters, Phycologia, vol.46, pp.429-439, 2007.

J. West and G. Kraft, Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngb. from Hopkins River Falls, Victoria-the first record of a freshwater brown alga in Australia, Muelleria, vol.9, pp.29-33, 1996.

S. M. Dittami, Host-microbe interactions as a driver of acclimation to salinity gradients in brown algal cultures, The ISME journal, vol.10, pp.51-63, 2016.

C. E. Lee and M. A. Bell, Causes and consequences of recent freshwater invasions by saltwater animals, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.14, pp.284-288, 1999.

S. M. Dittami, Towards deciphering dynamic changes and evolutionary mechanisms involved in the adaptation to low salinities in Ectocarpus (brown algae). The plant journal, vol.71, pp.366-377, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01208656

A. Cormier, Re-annotation, improved large-scale assembly and establishment of a catalogue of noncoding loci for the genome of the model brown alga Ectocarpus, New Phytologist, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01402123

T. F. Mackay, E. A. Stone, and J. F. Ayroles, The genetics of quantitative traits: challenges and prospects, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.10, pp.565-577, 2009.

A. H. Price, Believe it or not, QTLs are accurate! Trends in plant science 11, pp.213-216, 2006.

B. C. Collard, M. Z. Jahufer, J. B. Brouwer, and E. C. Pang, An introduction to markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection for crop improvement: The basic concepts, Euphytica, vol.142, pp.169-196, 2005.

Z. H. Ren, A rice quantitative trait locus for salt tolerance encodes a sodium transporter, Nature Genetics, vol.37, pp.1141-1146, 2005.

C. Sauvage, QTL for resistance to summer mortality and OsHV-1 load in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), Animal genetics, vol.41, pp.390-399, 2010.

T. F. Shan, S. J. Pang, J. Li, X. Li, and L. Su, Construction of a high-density genetic map and mapping of a sex-linked locus for the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae) based on large scale marker development by specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing, Bmc Genomics, vol.16, 2015.

N. A. Baird, Rapid SNP discovery and genetic mapping using sequenced RAD markers, PloS one, vol.3, p.3376, 2008.

B. K. Peterson, J. N. Weber, E. H. Kay, H. S. Fisher, and H. E. Hoekstra, Double digest RADseq: an inexpensive method for de novo SNP discovery and genotyping in model and non-model species, PloS one, vol.7, p.37135, 2012.

X. Lacaze, P. Hayes, and A. Korol, Genetics of phenotypic plasticity: QTL analysis in barley, Hordeum vulgare, Heredity, vol.102, pp.163-173, 2009.

S. M. Assmann, Natural variation in abiotic stress and climate change responses in Arabidopsis: implications for twenty-first-century agriculture, International Journal of Plant Sciences, vol.174, pp.3-26, 2013.

A. P. Lipinska, Development of PCR-based markers to determine the sex of kelps, Plos One, vol.10, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01226462

R. Lewontin and L. Birch, Hybridization as a source of variation for adaptation to new environments. Evolution, pp.315-336, 1966.

S. Tanksley, QTL analysis of transgressive segregation in an interspecific tomato cross, Genetics, vol.134, pp.585-596, 1993.

L. H. Rieseberg, A. Widmer, A. M. Arntz, and B. Burke, The genetic architecture necessary for transgressive segregation is common in both natural and domesticated populations, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of, vol.358, pp.1141-1147, 2003.

A. Peters and A. Breeman, Temperature tolerance and latitudinal range of brown algae from temperate Pacific South America, Marine Biology, vol.115, pp.143-150, 1993.

G. Russell and J. J. Bolton, Euryhaline ecotypes of Ectocarpus siliculosus, Dillw.) Lyngb. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, vol.3, pp.91-94, 1975.

A. A. Hoffmann and J. Merilä, Heritable variation and evolution under favourable and unfavourable conditions, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.14, pp.96-101, 1999.

P. J. Ward, Parent-offspring regression and extreme environments, Heredity, vol.72, pp.574-581, 1994.

D. Ebert, L. Yampolsky, and S. C. Stearns, Genetics of life history in Daphnia magna. 1. Heritabilities at two food levels, Heredity, vol.70, pp.335-343, 1993.

D. G. Müller and . Generationswechsel, kernphasenwechsel und sexualität der braunalge Ectocarpus siliculosus im kulturversuch, Planta, vol.75, pp.39-54, 1967.

E. S. Buckler, The genetic architecture of maize flowering time, Science, vol.325, pp.714-718, 2009.

G. P. Tiley and G. Burleigh, The relationship of recombination rate, genome structure, and patterns of molecular evolution across angiosperms, BMC evolutionary biology, vol.15, p.194, 2015.

N. Zhang, Construction of a high density SNP linkage map of kelp (Saccharina japonica) by sequencing Taq I site associated DNA and mapping of a sex determining locus, BMC genomics, vol.16, p.1, 2015.

, Scientific RepoRtS |, vol.7, p.43241

N. Ye, Saccharina genomes provide novel insight into kelp biology, Nature Communications, vol.6, 2015.

A. Kong, Fine-scale recombination rate differences between sexes, populations and individuals, Nature, vol.467, pp.1099-1103, 2010.

T. Paape, Fine scale population recombination rates, hotspots and correlates of recombination in the Medicago truncatula genome, Genome biology and evolution, p.46, 2012.

L. Gratani, Plant phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental factors, Advances in botany, p.2014, 2014.

M. El-soda, M. Malosetti, B. J. Zwaan, M. Koornneef, and M. G. Aarts, Genotype× environment interaction QTL mapping in plants: lessons from Arabidopsis, Trends in Plant Science, vol.19, pp.390-398, 2014.

H. A. Orr, Testing natural selection vs. genetic drift in phenotypic evolution using quantitative trait locus data, Genetics, vol.149, pp.2099-2104, 1998.

P. C. Phillips, Epistasis-the essential role of gene interactions in the structure and evolution of genetic systems, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.9, pp.855-867, 2008.

H. J. Cordell, Epistasis: what it means, what it doesn't mean, and statistical methods to detect it in humans, Human molecular genetics, vol.11, pp.2463-2468, 2002.

J. H. Gillespie and M. Turelli, Genotype-environment interactions and the maintenance of polygenic variation, Genetics, vol.121, pp.129-138, 1989.

B. Abasht, Fatness QTL on chicken chromosome 5 and interaction with sex, Genetics Selection Evolution, vol.38, pp.297-311, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00894542

R. Munns and M. Tester, Mechanisms of salinity tolerance, Annu. Rev. Plant Biol, vol.59, pp.651-681, 2008.

N. Bergmann, Population-specificity of heat stress gene induction in northern and southern eelgrass Zostera marina populations under simulated global warming, Molecular Ecology, vol.19, pp.2870-2883, 2010.

J. Coyer, Genomic scans detect signatures of selection along a salinity gradient in populations of the intertidal seaweed Fucus serratus on a 12 km scale, Marine genomics, vol.4, pp.41-49, 2011.

F. Goecke, A. Labes, J. Wiese, and J. F. Imhoff, Chemical interactions between marine macroalgae and bacteria, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.409, pp.267-299, 2010.

J. Hollants, F. Leliaert, O. De-clerck, and A. Willems, What we can learn from sushi: a review on seaweed-bacterial associations, FEMS microbiology ecology, vol.83, pp.1-16, 2013.

M. Pedersén, Identification of a cytokinin, 6-(3 Methyl-2-butenylamino) purine, in sea water and the effect of cytokinins on brown algae, Physiologia Plantarum, vol.28, pp.101-105, 1973.

M. Pedersén, Ectocarpus fasciculatus: marine brown alga requiring kinetin, 1968.

J. Catchen, P. A. Hohenlohe, S. Bassham, A. Amores, and W. A. Cresko, Stacks: an analysis tool set for population genomics, Molecular Ecology, vol.22, pp.3124-3140, 2013.

J. Zhang, K. Kobert, T. Flouri, and A. Stamatakis, PEAR: a fast and accurate Illumina Paired-End reAd mergeR, Bioinformatics, vol.30, pp.614-620, 2014.

A. M. Bolger, M. Lohse, and B. Usadel, Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data, Bioinformatics, vol.170, 2014.

B. Langmead and S. L. Salzberg, Fast gapped-read alignment with Bowtie 2, Nature Methods, vol.9, pp.357-354, 2012.

K. W. Broman, H. Wu, S. Sen, and G. A. Churchill, R/qtl: QTL mapping in experimental crosses, Bioinformatics, vol.19, pp.889-890, 2003.

L. Fishman, A. J. Kelly, E. Morgan, and J. H. Willis, A genetic map in the Mimulus guttatus species complex reveals transmission ratio distortion due to heterospecific interactions, Genetics, vol.159, pp.1701-1716, 2001.

S. Nakagawa and H. Schielzeth, Repeatability for Gaussian and non-Gaussian data: a practical guide for biologists, Biological Reviews, vol.85, pp.935-956, 2010.

R. E. Voorrips and . Mapchart, Software for the graphical presentation of linkage maps and QTLs, The Journal of Heredity, vol.93, pp.77-78, 2002.

K. W. Broman, S. Sen, and . Guide, QTL Mapping with R/qtl, vol.46, 2009.