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Assessment of trace metal contamination in mangrove ecosystems from Senegal, West Africa.

Abstract : The inorganic contamination of sediment and harvested molluscs was investigated in the mangrove environment of Southern West Senegal. Trace metals were analysed in surface sediments, two bivalves (Arca senilis and Crassostera gasar) and three gastropods (Conus spp., Hexaplex duplex and Pugilina morio) collected from four stations: Dionewar, Niodor and Falia localised in the Saloum Delta, and Fadiouth from the Petite Côte. A geochemical normalisation approach by using aluminium allowed for discrimination of sediment contamination among sites. Indeed, Fadiouth appeared highly contaminated with Cd, Hg and Ni compared to the Saloum Delta. For all mangrove sites, trace metals exhibited significant higher concentrations (on a dry weight basis) in shellfish compared to sediments, excepted for Ni and Pb. The distribution pattern followed a similar global trend in molluscs regardless of the spatio-temporal variability, with the predominance of Zn (80% of total metals) followed by Cu and Cd. However, strong differences of metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation in biota were demonstrated, revealing the requirement of employing a suite of organism bioindicators to monitor metal contamination in mangrove ecosystems. From an ecotoxicological point of view, trace metal levels in sediments from the Petite Côte and the Sine-Saloum Estuary were below the effects range-low (ERL) threshold limit of the sediment quality guidelines for adverse biological effects (SQGs). On the opposite, some concerns about Cd contamination of edible shellfish from Southern West Senegal were highlighted, from both the safety point of view of local populations' health, and the chemical quality point of view of exported resources.
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Nathalie Bodin, R. N'Gom-Kâ, S. Kâ, O. T. Thiaw, Luis Tito de Morais, et al.. Assessment of trace metal contamination in mangrove ecosystems from Senegal, West Africa.. Chemosphere, Elsevier, 2013, 90 (2), pp.150-157. ⟨10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.019⟩. ⟨hal-00789922⟩

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