Diurnal to inter-annual dynamics of pCO2 recorded by a CARIOCA sensor in a temperate coastal ecosystem (2003-2009)

Abstract : High-frequency pCO2 and ancillary data were recorded for seven years during the first deployment of a CARbon Interface OCean Atmosphere (CARIOCA) sensor in the surface waters of a temperate coastal ecosystem, the Bay of Brest, which is impacted by both coastal (via estuaries) and oceanic (North Atlantic via the Iroise Sea) water inputs. The CARIOCA sensor proved to be an excellent tool to constrain the high pCO2 variability in such dynamic coastal ecosystem. Biological processes (e.g. pelagic photosynthesis/respiration) were the main drivers of the seasonal and diurnal pCO2 dynamics throughout seven years of observations. Autotrophic processes were responsible for abrupt pCO2 drawdown of 100 to 200 μatm in spring. During the spring bloom, diurnal variations were driven by diel biological cycle. The average daily drawdown due to autotrophy (observed during highest daily PAR) was equivalent to 10 to 60% of the total pCO2 drawdown observed every year during the spring season. From late summer to fall, heterotrophic processes increased pCO2 in the surface water of the Bay back to the pre-bloom level. The average daily increase due to heterotrophy (observed during lowest daily PAR) corresponded to 10 to 70% of the total pCO2 increase observed every year during the late summer to fall period. Air-sea CO2 fluxes estimates based on hourly, daily and monthly calculations showed that careful consideration of the diurnal variability was needed to accurately estimate air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Bay of Brest. Sampling only during daytime or night-time would induce 8 to 36% error on monthly air-sea CO2 fluxes. This would in turn reverse the direction of the fluxes at annual level for the Bay. The annual emissions of CO2 from the surface waters of the Bay to the atmosphere showed relatively low inter-annual variations with an average of + 0.7 ± 0.4 mol C m-2 yr-1 computed for the study period. Further, air-sea CO2 fluxes computed for the adjacent inner-estuaries and Iroise Sea for an annual cycle were + 17 ± 3 mol C m-2 yr-1 and − 0.2 ± 0.2 mol C m-2 yr-1 , respectively. The spatial gradient showed a clear pattern from strong source to sink of CO2, from the inner-estuaries to the open oceanic waters of the North Atlantic. We suggest that semi-enclosed Bays act as buffers for sea to air emissions of CO2 from inner estuaries to adjacent costal seas.
Type de document :
Article dans une revue
Marine Chemistry, Elsevier, 2011, 126 (1-4), pp.13-26. 〈10.1016/j.marchem.2011.03.003〉
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Soumis le : mardi 25 octobre 2011 - 17:55:49
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Yves Bozec, Liliane Merlivat, Anne-Claire Baudoux, Laurence Beaumont, Stéphane Blain, et al.. Diurnal to inter-annual dynamics of pCO2 recorded by a CARIOCA sensor in a temperate coastal ecosystem (2003-2009). Marine Chemistry, Elsevier, 2011, 126 (1-4), pp.13-26. 〈10.1016/j.marchem.2011.03.003〉. 〈hal-00635736〉



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