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Stability of microbial communities in goat milk during a lactation year: molecular approaches

Abstract : The microbial communities in milks from one herd were evaluated during 1-year of lactation, using molecular methods to evaluate their stability and the effect of breeding conditions on their composition. The diversity of microbial communities was measured using two approaches: molecular identification by 16S and 18S rDNA sequencing of isolates from counting media (two milks), and direct identification using 16S rDNA from clone libraries (six milks). The stability of these communities was evaluated by counting on selective media and by Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of variable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene and variable region V4 of the 18S rRNA gene. One hundred and eighteen milk samples taken throughout the year were analyzed. Wide diversity among bacteria and yeasts in the milk was revealed. In addition to species commonly encountered in milk, such as Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus casei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus equorum, Micrococcus sp., Kocuria sp., Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas putida, sequences were affiliated to other species only described in cheeses, such as Corynebacterium variabile, Arthrobacter sp., Brachybacterium paraconglomeratum, Clostridium sp. and Rothia sp. Several halophilic species atypical in milk were found, belonging to Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus, Salinicoccus sp., Dietza maris, Exiguobacterium, Ornithinicoccus sp. and Hahella chejuensis. The yeast community was composed of Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Trichosporon beigelii, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula minuta, Candida pararugosa, Candida intermedia, Candida inconspicua, Cryptococcus curvatus and Cryptococcus magnus. The analyses of microbial counts and microbial SSCP profiles both distinguished four groups of milks corresponding to four periods defined by season and feeding regime. The microbial community was stable within each period. Milks from winter were characterized by Lactococcus and Pseudomonas, those from summer by P. agglomerans and Klebsiella and those from autumn by Chryseobacterium indologenes, Acinetobacter baumanii, Staphylococcus, Corynebacteria and yeasts. However, the composition of the community can vary according to factors other than feeding. This study opens new investigation fields in the field of raw milk microbial ecology.
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Cécile Callon, Frédérique Duthoit, Céline Delbès, Marion Ferrand, Yves Le Frileux, et al.. Stability of microbial communities in goat milk during a lactation year: molecular approaches. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, Elsevier, 2007, 30 (7), pp.547-60. ⟨10.1016/j.syapm.2007.05.004⟩. ⟨hal-00621188⟩

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