Characterisation of physiological and immunological differences between Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) genetically selected for high or low survival to summer mortalities and fed different rations under controlled conditions

Abstract : Within the framework of a national scientific program named "MORtalités ESTivales de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas" (MOREST), a family-based experiment was developed to study the genetic basis of resistance to summer mortality in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. As part of the MOREST project, the second generation of three resistant families and two susceptible families were chosen and pooled into two respective groups: "R" and "S". These two groups of oysters were conditioned for 6 months on two food levels (4% and 12% of oyster soft-tissue dry weight in algal dry weight per day) with a temperature gradient that mimicked the Marennes-Oléron natural cycle during the oyster reproductive period. Oyster mortality remained low for the first two months, but then rapidly increased in July when seawater temperature reached 19 °C and above. Mortality was higher in "S" oysters than in "R" oysters, and also higher in oysters fed the 12% diet than those fed 4%, resulting in a decreasing, relative order in cumulative mortality as follows; 12% "S" > 12% "R" > 4% "S" > 4% "R". Although the observed mortality rates were lower than those previously observed in the field, the mortality differential between "R" and "S" oysters was similar. Gonadal development, estimated by tissue lipid content, followed a relative order yielding a direct, positive relationship between reproductive effort and mortality as we reported precedently by quantitative histology. Regarding hemocyte parameters, one of the most striking observations was that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly higher in "S" oysters than in "R" oysters in May and June, regardless of food level. The absence of known environmental stress under these experimental conditions suggests that the ROS increase in "S" oyster could be related to their higher reproductive activity. Finally, a higher increase in hyalinocyte counts was observed for"S" oysters, compared to "R" oysters, in July, just before mortality. Taken together, our results suggest an association of genetically based resistance to summer mortality, reproductive strategy and hemocyte parameters.
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Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Elsevier, 2007, 353 (1), pp.45-57. 〈10.1016/j.jembe.2007.09.003〉
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Soumis le : lundi 6 février 2012 - 17:17:39
Dernière modification le : jeudi 11 janvier 2018 - 06:22:24

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Maryse Delaporte, Philippe Soudant, Christophe Lambert, Marine Jegaden, Jeanne Moal, et al.. Characterisation of physiological and immunological differences between Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) genetically selected for high or low survival to summer mortalities and fed different rations under controlled conditions. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Elsevier, 2007, 353 (1), pp.45-57. 〈10.1016/j.jembe.2007.09.003〉. 〈hal-00667069〉

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